Butter (or margarine) comes in 1 lb. packages, 4 sticks, or “cubes” to a package. Each stick (cube) is 1/2 C. or 8 tablespoons. So if a recipe calls for a cube of butter, you would use one stick (1/2 cup or 8 tablespoons)
How do you calculate rate and volume variance?
These three calculations can be represented by the following formulas: Rate Var = (Actual Rate - Budgeted Rate) * Actual Average Balance * Basis. Volume Var = (Actual Avg Bal - Budgeted Avg Bal) * Budgeted Rate * Basis. Mix Var = (Actual Rate - Budgeted Rate) * (Actual Avg Bal - Budgeted Avg Bal) * Basis.
What do you mean by variance analysis What are advantages of variance?
Variance Analysis deals with an analysis of deviations in the budgeted and actual financial performance of a company. It helps to understand why fluctuations happen and what can / should be done to reduce the adverse variance. ... This eventually helps in better budgeting activity.
Should all variances be investigated?
How can variances be corrected? Variances should be investigated when variances are significant between actual costs and standard costs. ... Significant variances must be reported as actual costs rather than standard costs, variances can be corrected with continual review and alterations when needed of standard costs.
Are unfavorable variances always bad?
Remember, variances are expressed at the absolute values meaning we do not show negative or positive numbers. We express variances in terms of FAVORABLE or UNFAVORABLE and negative is not always bad or unfavorable and positive is not always good or favorable.
Which variance is always adverse?
Idle time variance Explanation. Idle time variance illustrates the adverse impact on the profitability of an organization as a result of having paid for the labor time which did not result in any production. Idle time variance is therefore always described as an 'adverse' variance.
What does active ride control do?
Active Ride Control includes technology developed to reduce vehicle pitching when passing over a bump by automatically applying a very small amount of braking.
What is intelligent trace control?
To assist drivers, the Intelligent Trace Control system can apply braking automatically to each wheel, helping to keep the vehicle on the cornering line as steered. The system helps drivers smoothly maintain control, so they are able to relax and drive around corners more confidently.* Technology Functionality.
What is Nissan chassis control?
This technology helps the driver feel more confident when cornering by controlling the braking on each of the four wheels in response to the driving circumstances, based on the driver's steering, acceleration and braking on winding roads or when entering or exiting an expressway.
What is active engine brake?
Nissan's Active Engine Brake is a technology that adjusts the amount of engine braking depending on driving conditions. The system monitors vehicle speed along with steering and braking inputs. ... Additionally, the Active Engine Brake system can adjust the CVT ratio to help the car brake more smoothly.
What does active ride control do quizlet?
What does Active Understeer Control do? Uses Vehicle Dynamic Control to gently apply the brakes to the inside wheels.
What's the advantage of automatic volume control for an audio system?
An automatic volume control (AVC) automatically adjusts the volume, or loudness, of an audio signal, usually to compensate for ambient noise in an effort to make the audio signal better heard and understood above the noise.
How does Vehicle Dynamic Control VDC help the driver regain control of the vehicle?
It helps the driver keep the vehicle on its steered path in certain handling situations. VDC controls the amount of engine power and/or applies brake pressure to individual wheels as needed. ... The driver must take action to avoid a collision.
What is Nissan intelligent driver alertness?
System mechanism Intelligent Driver Alertness (I-DA) determines driver drowsiness or reduced attention based on changes in smoothness (roughness) of steering input by the driver. ... The system continuously compares subsequent driving patterns to a baseline using a statistical analysis of steering correction errors.
How does a chassis work?
At the most basic level, the chassis of an automobile consists of only the frame. ... As well as act as the frame onto which all of the vehicle's parts are attached, it also provides invaluable structural integrity which prevents the car from collapsing into itself under large amounts of strain. Jul 31, 2010
Why is the chassis important?
The chassis provides the strength needed for supporting the different vehicular components as well as the payload and helps to keep the automobile rigid and stiff. Consequently, the chassis is also an important component of the overall safety system.
What means chassis?
supporting frame : the supporting frame of a structure (such as an automobile or television) Leaf springs are attached to the car's chassis. also : the frame and working parts (as of an automobile or electronic device) exclusive of the body or housing.
Why is it illegal to engine brake?
Engine braking is prohibited in some areas because of the loud noise it creates. Typically, when an interstate travels near a residential area is when you will see the signs prohibiting the action. Oct 7, 2014
Does engine braking damage the engine?
First of all, to dispel the myth – engine braking does not harm your engine at all. Engines are designed to run at thousands of revs per minute for hours at a time. Changing down, whilst may be a bit jerky at times, doesn't inflict any damage. It's also good for the engine because it was designed to be driven that way.
Is engine braking bad for CVT?
It won't do damage to the engine, this is actually fine. It also will not damage your CVT. It's fine to downshift on a hill and use engine braking... This is the recommended way not to destroy your brakes on a mountain road.
What is the advantage of active brake limited slip?
The Active Brake Limited Slip (ABLS) system senses wheelspin, then automatically applies the brakes to the spinning wheel(s) and directs power to the wheel(s) with the best traction. A system that helps reduce vehicle speed by adding small amounts of engine braking to assist the brakes.
How many sensors does Vehicle Dynamic Control VDC use to monitor the vehicle's behavior?
seven sensors Together, all seven sensors provide the VDC control unit with information about the vehicle's behavior at any instant. Based on this information, the VDC control unit sends a signal to actuate the ABS, traction control, and throttle or individual brakes as necessary to help maintain the vehicle on its steered path. Nov 26, 2016
What are the advantages of weld bonding?
Weld-bonding can improve strength and stiffness; provide additional fixturing capabilities; allow for fewer welds; improve fatigue and impact resistance as well as cycle time; and increase corrosion protection and noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) control properties. Dec 31, 2019
What is auto volume leveling?
This setting automatically adjusts the volume to a fixed level that matches to the volume changes of the broadcast and input signal. It's an effective setting when for instance, the volume of commercials feels louder than the volume of the program. Switch to the broadcast (or input) you want to adjust the volume of. Jan 5, 2021
What is AVC level in music system?
Standard audio system. ADAPTIVE VOLUME CONTROL (AVC) The AVC feature adjusts the volume level, to compensate for the changes in road noise as the vehicle's speed increases or decreases. The AVC setting represents the volume increase and not the volume level.
What's the benefit of timing chains?
If the mechanical timing is off, damage could occur to the valves, pistons, engine, or other components. The purpose of the timing belt or chain is to ensure the harmonization by keeping each turning at the precise rate. The timing chain functions in the same way that a timing belt does.
What is the Vehicle Dynamic Control?
Your car is equipped with a vehicle dynamic control (VDC) system. It's designed to monitor the driving conditions and your input (brake use, steering wheel use, etc.) and to step in if necessary. ... The system can control brake pressure to correct understeer or oversteer (in certain situations). Dec 14, 2015
What does VDC off mean?
Vehicle Dynamic Control feature The Vehicle Dynamic Control feature helps your car maintain proper traction when driving in adverse conditions. But when the vehicle is stuck in snow or mud, the VDC reduces engine output, and you may need to turn it off to get your vehicle out. In most Infiniti and Nissan vehicles, there is a VDC Off switch. Jan 6, 2021
Is VDC the same as traction control?
Traction control is for front tire spin under power. VDC is more involved in correcting over/understeer before you are aware it is happening. Mar 21, 2006
How does Driver Attention Alert adapt to individual drivers?
The system adapts to each individual driver, monitoring steering input patterns (using steering angle sensors) during a period of driving to establish a baseline. It continuously compares subsequent driving patterns to a baseline using a statistical analysis of steering correction errors. Apr 18, 2016
How does Driver Attention detection work?
Driver Attention Detection uses different types of information to detect drowsiness, including steering wheel movements and length of time driving. It will alert the driver to take a break via an alert on the dashboard and a sound.
What does Driver Alert mean?
Driver alert systems offer a way to reduce the likelihood that a drowsy or fatigued driver will cause an accident due to sluggish reactions or dozing off. These systems are designed to detect the telltale signs of a drowsy or impaired driver, and then provide an alert or take some type of corrective action. Feb 24, 2020
How do I know if my chassis is damaged?
Ways To Determine Car Frame Damage Visible Bending Or Damage. After a serious accident, you may be able to see that the frame of your car has been bent or damaged. ... Poor Car Alignment. ... Unusual Noises. ... Uneven Wear On Shocks & Suspension. ... Uneven Wear On Tires. ... Incorrect Fit Of Other Parts. ... Poor Wheel Tracking. Dec 23, 2019
How long does a chassis last?
With Chassis, a little product can go a very long way. The replacement rate can vary depending on frequency and dosage, but on average, a bottle of Chassis powder should last up to 6 months, a flask of Shower Primer should last up to 4 months, and a bottle of Restoration Cream should last up to 1 year.
What is the difference between chassis and body?
A vehicle frame, also known as its chassis, is the main supporting structure of a motor vehicle to which all other components are attached, comparable to the skeleton of an organism. Until the 1930s, virtually every car had a structural frame separate from its body. This construction design is known as body-on-frame.
Why is a stiff chassis good?
It certainly is important. The chassis of a car (or truck, or any other sort of wheeled vehicle) is the most important structural part. The more rigid it is, the better chance that all of the wheels will point in the desired direction. This is a Good Thing for control, safety, and comfort.
What makes a good chassis?
A very large part of what makes a chassis good is also suspension geometry. It affects steering feel, anti-lift, anti-squat and roll center, among many other things. These are all very important when it comes to how a car feels dynamically. ... Low cars are AMAZINGLY better than high ones..
Can a chassis be repaired?
Absolutely! Contrary to popular belief, frame damage can be repaired by an auto body shop with skilled technicians. Repair is done using specialized framing machines, which can return as close to factory specifications. These machines use hydraulic pressure and torque to straighten bent parts of your frame.
What are the main components of chassis?
The chassis comprises the following components: wheels, wheel carrier, wheel bearing, brake, wheel suspension, axle support, suspension (including anti-roll bar)...
What are the types of chassis?
There are two types of chassis: Conventional chassis or frame-full chassis. Non-conventional or Frameless Chassis. Hatchback. Sedan/Notchback. Estate/Station Wagon. Multi Purpose Vehicle (MPV) / Multi Utility Vehicle (MUV) Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) Feb 14, 2014
Is engine braking the same as downshifting?
Engine braking happens when the driver or rider closed the throttle (aka gas pedal). No downshifting required. The vehicle slows at least partially based upon engine braking as well as the slowing effect of atmospheric and tire drag. Downshifting can use a lower gear to slow the vehicle.
What is the difference between an engine brake and an exhaust brake?
Engine brakes release compressed air through an exhaust valve, but exhaust brakes hold the compression in the engine and slow the crankshaft's rotation, which reduces vehicle speed [source: Lay]. ... Exhaust brakes don't produce the loud blatting sound for which engine brakes are known. They actually make no sound at all.
Does a Jake Brake hurt the engine?
The only time a Jake brake will hurt an engine is if the driver gets stupid and allows the weight of the truck going downhill to push the engine RPM's over the engine's maximum RPM limit. Then again, letting the engine get pushed past maximum RPM will also cause damage without the Jake brake on. May 13, 2010
What happens if you shift from 5th gear to 1st?
It would depend at what speed you were driving and gear ratios but to put it simply probably you could seriously over rev the engine and destroy it, as well as breaking traction on the driving wheels which on rear traction vehicles would provoke a spin.
Is it better to break slowly or quickly?
A slow brake cycle will build heat at a much slower rate, giving it more time to dissipate, while a fast brake cycle won't. Also a slow brake cycle will heat up the brake assembly more evenly. Nov 10, 2015
What is double clutching mean?
In simple terms, double clutching is the act of using the clutch pedal twice during a single shift between gears. Starting in motion in fifth gear, it goes like this: Clutch in, shifter out of fifth into neutral, clutch out, quick hit of gas pedal, clutch in, shifter out of neutral into fourth. Dec 18, 2020
Why do my rpms go up when going downhill?
When going downhill, gravity accelerates your car, driving the wheels faster, which in turn drives the engine faster. ... When we drive a car at a constant speed, the engine performs a rotation (RPM). If we move to a higher gear, the RPM decreases.
Can you engine brake in an automatic?
Cars. In an average consumer vehicle with an automatic transmission, engine braking is rarely used, but it's technically possible to do so by switching from Drive (D) to Low (L). ... Far more common is engine braking in a vehicle with a manual transmission. While in gear, releasing the gas pedal closes the throttle body. Dec 2, 2020
Can you downshift a CVT transmission?
Downshifting a CVT or automatic transmission on a steep downgrade is recommended in order to avoid overheating your brakes. Downshifting these transmissions for stop lights and curves is not recommended. Jul 4, 2016
Which is better limited slip or locking differential?
An automatic locking differential can unlock and allow the inside wheel to rotate freely, but only when power is limited. The limited slip differential will allow some slipping between the two side gears, this allows both wheels to get equal traction even though one is spinning faster than the other. May 2, 2016
What is better posi or limited slip?
The limited-slip differential is similar to the positraction differential, but allows the wheel with traction to have only a limited amount of greater power than the wheel that is slipping. A limited-slip differential will prevent the tire with less traction from separately spinning. ...
Is limited slip the same as Positraction?
TOM: Actually, Jeannie, "posi-traction" is just Chevrolet's name for limited slip differential on passenger cars. ... RAY: On Chevy trucks, limited slip is called "locking differential." That's just a heavier duty version of "posi-traction," and it operates ONLY on the rear wheels, even if you have four-wheel-drive. Jan 1, 1993
Why is my VDC light on?
The VDC and Slip Light illumination could be an indication that you are getting low on brake fluid, due to worn brake pads. Low brake fluid could cause the throttle control to kick in when a sudden vehicle movement is...
How do I turn my VDC back on?
It's easy to toggle VDC on and off simply by pushing the VDC button. The VDC indicator will light up when Vehicle Dynamic Control is off. It will turn back on when you push the switch a second time. The VDC should turn on automatically when you start your car.
What is weld bonding?
Weld bonding is an innovative and promising metal joining technology in which structural adhesives are applied to the faying surfaces of the metal parts to be joined and subsequently spot-welded through before curing of the adhesive is accomplished (Fig.
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